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VLAN is an acronym for Virtual Local Area Network. Several VLANs can co-exist on a single physical switch, which are configured via software (Linux commands and configuration files) and not through hardware interface (you still need to configure switch).
Hubs or switch connects all nodes in a LAN and node can communicate without a router. For example, all nodes in LAN A can communicate with each other without the need for a router. If a node from LAN A wants to communicate with LAN B node, you need to use a router. Therefore, each LAN (A, B, C and so on) are separated using a router.